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  1,Some geologists,however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered,but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state)percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly,according to the vagaries of the fluids' pathways. 但是,某些地质学家,以对地幔捕虏岩体(xenolith)所作的观察为依据,指出地幔并非是分层排列的,相反,地幔的异质性是    由那些富含"不相容成分"的流质构成的,这些成分趋向于流体而非固体的状态,自下而上渗透扩散,并依照这些流质流向的任意性,不规则地将上部地幔的某些部分予以改变。
  2,Virginia Woolf's provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics,since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness. 弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫(Virginia Woolf)在创作《黛洛维夫人》(Mrs. Dalloway)时有关其创作意图的这番发人深思的陈述,迄今为止一贯为文学评论家们所忽略,因为它突出反映了她诸多文学兴趣中某一方面,而这一方面则与人们对"诗性"小说家(poetic novelist)所形成的传统见解大相径庭。所谓的"诗性"小说家,所关注的是审视想入非非和白日梦幻的诸般状态,并致力于追寻个体意识的通幽曲径。
  3, Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beuve's blindness to the real nature of great writing , found the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments ,and allowed these to take over it a steadily developing novel. F认为,P在1908年试图开始写一部小说,又为了写一部批判S-B的 伟大作品的真正本质的视而不见的长篇的证明而放弃了这部小说,其后又发现这一论文又勾起了其个人记忆及小说情节的萌生,使得后者取而代之形成了一部稳定展开的小说。
  4, The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels,from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings, made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently. 各种有意义的联系在所有的层次上,自抽象的理性至深刻的梦幻般的情感,层出不穷并不断重新组合排列;正是这些有意义的联系的丰富性和复杂性,致使普鲁斯特难于将它们错落有致地安排好。
  5, But those of who hoped, with Kolb, that Kolb's newly published complete edition of Proust's correspondence for 1909 would document the process in greater detail are disappointed. 但是我们当中的那些希望(也算上K本人)K新出版的P1909年书信的全集能够更加详细的记录下这一过程的人都大失所望。
  6,With the conclusion of a burst activity , the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids , leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted , via oxidative metabolism , by the liver into glucose , which is then sent (in part )back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis . 随着爆发出来的运动的结束,再体液中乳酸含量会变得很高,使得大型动物处于容易受到攻击的状态,直到乳酸通过有氧新陈代谢,被肝脏转化成(convert into)葡萄糖,而葡萄糖接下来又会(部分)传送回肌肉中重新合成糖原 。
  7, Now we must also examine the culture as we Mexican Americans have experienced it , passing from a sovereign people to compatriots with newly arriving settlers to , finally ,a conquered people - a charter minority on our own land. 现在我们必须也按照我们墨西哥裔的美国人的经历来审视这个文化,我们的经历是从一个主权的民族变成了新来的定居者的同胞,在最终沦落成为一个被征服的民族--在我们自己的土地上的契约的少数民族。
  8, It is possible to make specific complementary DNA's (cDNA's)that can serve as molecular probes to seek out the messenger RNA's (mRNA's) of the peptide hormones. If brain cells are making the hormones,the cells will contain these Mrna'S. If the products the brain cells make resemble the hormones but are not identical to them,then the cDNA's should still bind to these mRNA's,but should not bind as tightly as they would to mRNA's for the true hormones. 科学家可以制造出特异的(specific)互补DNA's(cDNA's),以此作为分子探子(molecular probe),探觅出肽激素的信使RNA's(mRNA's)。如果大脑正在制造着肽激素,则细胞就会含有这些信使RNA's.假若细胞所制造的产品类似于肽激素但并非与这些肽激素全然相同,那么,互补cDNA's应仍然和这些信使mDNA's粘结的程度。含有这些mRNA's的脑细胞然后就可以被分离开来,研究者可对其信使RNA's进行解码,以确定它们的蛋白质产品究竟是什么,并确定这些蛋白质产品在何种程度上类似于真正的肽激素。
  9,This preference for exogamy,Gutman suggests,may have derived from West African rules governing marriage,which,though they differed from one tribal group to another,all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. 古特曼表示,这种对于外部通婚的偏爱很有可能缘起于西部非洲制约着婚姻的规定,尽管这些规定在一个和另一个部落群体之间不尽相同,但都涉及到某种对近亲联姻(union with close kin)的禁止。
  10, The molecular approach to detecting peptide hormones using cDNA probes should also be much faster than the immunological method because it can take years of tedious purifications to isolate peptide hormones and then develop antiserums to them. 采用cDNA探子来测定肽激素的这一分子生物学方法同时也应该比免疫学的方法速度来得快,因为对于免疫的方法来说,需耗费好几年枯燥的提纯进程,方能将肽素分离了出来,然后再培养出针对它们的抗血清。
  11, Nevertheless, researchers of the Pleistocene epoch have developed all sorts of more or less fanciful model schemes of how they would have arranged the Ice Age had they been in charge of events. 然而,研究P时代的研究者发展除了各种各样的或多或少有些奇怪思想的模型系统,用来显示如果由他们来决定地质事件的话他们将会如何安排冰川纪。
  12, This succession was based primarily on a series of deposits and events not directly related to glacial and interglacial periods,rather than on the more usual modern method of studying biological remains found in interglacial beds themselves interstratified within glacial deposits. 这一序列演替(succession)所依据的,主要是一系列与冰川期和间冰期并不直接相关的地质沉积物和地质事件,而不是依据更为普遍的现代方法,去研究间冰层(interglacial bed)中所发现的生物残留物,而这些间冰层本身又在冰川沉积物发生间层化(interstatified)。
  13,  If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product.另一方面,如果大量制造某种商品导致其成本下降,那么这就有可能增加卖方和制造商能提供的供给,而这也就会反过来降低价格并允许更多的消 费者购买产品。

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